All the circumstances of the trade, the hours of labour, the rate of remuneration, and the sanitary conditions under which the work is done are disgraceful… In the “dens” of sweaters, as they are called, there is not the slightest attempt at decency… In the vast majority of cases, work is carried on under conditions in the highest degree filthy and unsanitary. In small rooms, not more than nine or ten feet square, heated by a coke fire for the presser’s irons, and at night lighted by flaring gas-jets, six, eight, ten, and even dozen workers may be crowded… The stench and foul vapours about the place are very bad.. As regards hours of labour, earnings, and sanitary surroundings, the condition of these people is more deplorable than that of any body of working men in any portion of the civilized or uncivilized world.
( Lord Draven’s speech on the sweating system.)
Edward Linley Sambourne, from Punch vol. 94-95, London,
Sections of an English coal mine.
From The underground world, by Thomas Wallace Knox, Hartford, 1877.
Weyher and Richemond steam engine.
Louis Poyet, from L’Exposition universelle de 1889 (The 1889 Paris world fair) vol. 3, by Émile Monod, Paris, 1890.
Punching machine & metal cutter.
From L’Exposition universelle de 1889 (The 1889 Paris world fair) vol. 3, by Émile Monod, Paris, 1890.
Blast engine, I.P. Morris Company.
From The great Centennial exhibition critically described and illustrated, by Phillip T. Sandhurst, Philadelphia and Chicago, circa 1876.
Driving in wedges to transfer a ship’s weight from the keel blocks to the launching cradles.
Charles J. De Lacy, from Engineering wonders of the world vol. 2, edited by Archibald Williams, London, 1909.
Davis & Furber wool-carding machine.
From Appletons’ cyclopaedia of applied mechanic vol. 2, edited by Park Benjamin, New York, 1880.